This invention relates to a novel method of preparing non-ionic inorganic fiuoro compounds. This invention further relates to certain novel inorganic compounds. It is an object of this invention to prepare non-ionic inorganic fluoro compounds in a novel manner. It is another object of this invention to employ novel reaction conditions whereby fluorine groups can be introduced selectively into inorganic compounds. Still another object of this invention is to prepare novel non-ionic inorganic fiuoro compounds. These and other objects of this invention will be apparent from the detailed description which follows.
International Bamboo and Rattan Organisation
To support our nonprofit science journalism, please make a tax-deductible gift today. This painting by John Cooke depicts scientists comparing Piltdown Man’s remains to other species. The big-brained, ape-jawed Piltdown Man was hailed as a major missing link in human evolution when he was discovered in a gravel pit outside a small U. The find set the pace for evolutionary research for decades and established the United Kingdom as an important site in human evolution.
The only problem? The saga of Piltdown started in
Properties and uses of the element fluorine. Fluorine is created in sun-like stars towards the end of their lifetime, according to a Stay up to date on the coronavirus outbreak by signing up to our newsletter today.
Patented Oct. In one general embodiment it relates to the removal from hydrocarbon materials of fluorine-containing organic compounds which are present in relatively minor amounts. In a more specific embodiment my invention relates to the removal of at least a major portion of organically bound fluorine from hydrocarbon materials containin organically bound fluorine in an amountnot greater than about 2 per cent by weight, and often in an amount not greater than about 0.
The invention is particularly applicable to such fluorine removal as carried out with the aid of naturally occurring minerals containing silica as an impurity. In the manufacture of hydrocarbons by processes in which fluorine-containing catalysts are used, small proportions of organic fluorine-containing lay-products are often formed. Processes to which my invention may be generally applied involve the alkylation of relatively low-boiling hydrocarbons with oleflns, alcohols, ethers, alkyl halides, and the like, to produce higher-boiling hydrocarbons in the presence of catalysts comprising one or more such fluorine compounds as hydrofluoric acid, boron trifluoride, antimony trifluoride, complexes of these with other materials such as are formed by boron trifluoride and water,.
My invention may also be applied to processes wherein such low-boiling hydrocarbons are. In gases they may thus cause corrosion of han- ‘dling equipment; in liquid motor fuel hydrocarbons they are undesirable for reasons that are obvious. Two general methods of removing-such organic combined fluorine are available. One involves a decomposition of the same underconditions liberating free hydrogen fluoride, which is subsequently removed from the hydrocarbons by distillation Application January 3.
US6225382B1 – Fluorine-containing resin composition – Google Patents
The materials currently being tested are cerium, lanthanum, and copper-based, Jones adds, and those elements are more plentiful than cobalt and lithium more popularly used in batteries today. Until now, FIBs are made in a laboratory cell that operates at high temperatures. Bifluoride ions are also not natively good at promoting conversion reactions at an electrode surface. Our research succeeded in dissolving fluoride salt into an organic solution without forming bifluoride ions.
At that time, Davy could not state categorically that fluorine was an element: “In the views An important step was made by Frémy, Moissan’s first mentor, when he He described this furnace in a work dating from , and explains how the.
The pro-fluoride side had more money, more support from officials and more diverse backers, but when the votes were tallied, 60 percent of the city voted against adding fluoride to their water. Fluoride was first added to drinking water in Grand Rapids, Michigan in , just a decade or so after scientists first identified its teeth-saving properties. In , a dentist named Dr. After years of treating patients, McKay figured that the stain must be coming from the water supply they shared.
But he also noticed something interesting. People with the brown stains had less tooth decay. In , a chemist with the Aluminum Company of American analyzed the well that the spotted-toothed town drank from and found that the water has high concentrations of fluoride— Enter Dr. In , Grand Rapids began a study to see whether adding fluoride to the water would have the same effect. These results lead to the United States recommending an optimum water fluoride concentration range of 0.
Conventional methods for producing a fluorine-containing olefin involving a 1,1-dihydrofluorovinyl group generally comprise the following steps: the hydroxyl group of a 1,1-dihydro-2,2-difluoro alcohol referred to as a “fluoroalcohol” hereinafter is substituted by a halogen atom; and then the resulting halide is dehalogenated with zinc.
A method for halogen substitution of a fluoroalcohol has been reported, e. The reaction scheme is indicated below. In the above formulae, R f represents a perfluoroalkyl group or a fluoroalkyl group same as in the formulae referred hereinafter.
The researchers created a new form of CDO with two very strong carbon-fluorine bonds. This should have made it more difficult for the enzyme.
The most reactive element on the Periodic Table, fluorine has a violent history in the quest for its discovery. Despite the difficult and sometimes explosive properties of fluorine, it is a vital element for humans and animals, which is why it is commonly found in drinking water and toothpaste. Early chemists tried for years to isolate the element from various fluorides.
However, fluorine does not occur free in nature and no chemical substance is capable of freeing fluorine from any of its compounds due to its reactive nature. For centuries, the mineral fluorspar was used in metal refining. Known today as calcium fluoride CaF 2 , it was used as a flux to separate pure metal from the unwanted minerals in ore, according to Chemicool. The “fluor” comes from the Latin word “fluere,” meaning “to flow,” because that’s what fluorspar allowed metals to do.
The mineral was also called Bohemian emerald and was used in glass etching, according to the Jefferson Laboratory. Many scientists over the decades attempted to experiment with fluorspar to better learn its properties, as well as its composition. In their experiments, chemists often produced fluoric acid today known as hydrofluoric acid, HF , an incredibly reactive and dangerous acid. Even small splashes of this acid on skin can be fatal, according to Chemicool.
Several scientists were injured, blinded or killed in some of the experiments. In the early 19th century, scientists Andre-Marie Ampere, in France, and Humphry Davy, in England, corresponded about the possibility of a new element within the acid.
Federal Register Open Comments. This timeline is still in draft form. We hope to complete it in the not too distant future! We welcome contributions, suggestions, or corrections from anyone who would like to add to this Timeline. We especially would appreciate the dates for the first-time use of PFOA and PFOS chemicals used in pesticides or as “inerts” – and data that can confirm that the substances used in “inerts” are waste products from the production of these chemicals.
Carnot developed techniques for measuring the fluorine content of fossil bones and conducted tests to demonstrate the validity of his new fluorine.
Remember me. Steinheil, Paris, Davy to E. He was astonished by the analogies between muriatic acid chlorhydric acid and fluoric acid fluorhydric acid and concluded that an element first called oxy-fluoric and then fluorine in French must exist, once he had understood that fluorhydric acid did not contain any oxygen. Among the letters that he exchanged with Davy during the war raging between their two nations, he even suggested on 1st November the possibility of isolating the element fluorine through the electrolysis of anhydrous fluorhydric acid .
The isolation of this new element continued to occupy many researchers for most of the nineteenth century. A first step was the preparation of pure water-free hydrofluoric acid by L.
As has been seen, the geologic time scale is based on stratified rock assemblages that contain a fossil record. For the most part, these fossils allow various forms of information from the rock succession to be viewed in terms of their relative position in the sequence. Approximately the first 87 percent of Earth history occurred before the evolutionary development of shell-bearing organisms.
The result of this mineralogic control on the preservability of organic remains in the rock record is that the geologic time scale—essentially a measure of biologic changes through time—takes in only the last 13 percent of Earth history. Although the span of time preceding the Cambrian period—the Precambrian —is nearly devoid of characteristic fossil remains and coincides with some of the primary rocks of certain early workers, it must, nevertheless, be evaluated in its temporal context.
Historically, the subdivision of Precambrian rock sequences and, therefore, Precambrian time had been accomplished on the basis of structural or lithologic grounds.
ConocoPhillips Co; Original Assignee: ConocoPhillips Co; Priority date The invention is particularly applicable to such fluorine removal as carried out with the.
The present invention relates to a fluorine-containing copolymer which has functional groups, and a curable composition containing the copolymer and a curing agent. Conventionally, in room temperature curing fluoro-resin paints which do not require backing at high temperatures upon curing the paints, there has been employed a fluorine-containing copolymer prepared by copolymerizing a fluorolefin, cyclohexyl vinyl ether, and the like as one component of the room temperature curing paints [Japanese Unexamined Patent Publication Tokkyo Kokai Nos.
However, the conventional copolymers have the defect of being poor in compatibility with acrylic resins. The present inventors have found incorporation of acrylic resins into the room temperature curing fluoro-resin paint of the invention improves the weatherability, transparency and pigment dispersibility of the paints. It is an object of the present invention to provide a novel fluorine-containing copolymer having a functional group, which has an excellent transparency and moreover has an excellent compatibility with an acrylic resin.
A further object of the present invention is to provide a curable composition containing the fluorine-containing copolymer and a curing agent. These and other objects of the present invention will become apparent from the description hereinafter.
Fluorine absorption dating
Patented Apr. Application July 12, ,. This invention relates to the preparation of fluorine compounds and morev particularly to a method for preparing such compounds by the addition of fluorine to olefinic compounds. Organic fluorine compounds have generally been prepared by the substitutionof chlorine-or bromine by fluorine. These processes generally produce unsymmetrical fluorinated compounds and do not produce certain types of valuable compounds.
For example, they will not, in general, produce the type of compound which would be produced theoretically by the addition of two fluorine atoms at the double bond of an olefinic compound.
Post author By Compound Interest; Post date February 4, · 6 Comments PTFE is a long chain of carbon atoms with two fluorine atoms bonded to each carbon (they attract the electrons in the bond strongly), the carbon and fluorine atoms end up with University of North Carolina; Teflon was invented by accident.
This invention relates to a novel curable composition consisting essentially of a fluorine rubber and an amino acid. The fluorine rubber is well known, and finds a wide range of applications because of its superior thermal stability and outstanding resistances to chemicals and oils. Organic peroxides such as dicumyl peroxide, polyamines such as triethylene tetramine, and polyisocyanates are among known vulcanizing agents for fluorine rubbers.
The present inventor has now found that specific amino acids are new and useful vulcanizing agents for fluorine rubbers. The present invention thus provides a curable composition consisting essentially of a fluorine rubber and at least one amino acid selected from the group consisting of arginine, lysine, ornithine, hydroxylysine, glutamine, cystine, asparagine and citrulline. The accompanying drawing shows the cure curves of compositions illustrated in Example to be given hereinbelow.
Various types of fluorine rubbers are known, and for example, vinylidene fluoride-type fluorine rubbers, fluorinated silicone-type fluorine rubbers, fluorinated nitroso-type fluorine rubbers, fluorinated acrylate-type fluorine rubbers, fluorinated polyester-type fluorine rubbers, fluorinated vinyl ether-type fluorine rubbers, fluorinated triazine-type and fluorinated phosphonitrile-type fluorine rubbers are commercially available.
US3532474A – Preparation of azine fluoride – Google Patents
Allotropes Some elements exist in several different structural forms, called allotropes. Each allotrope has different physical properties. For more information on the Visual Elements image see the Uses and properties section below. Group A vertical column in the periodic table. Members of a group typically have similar properties and electron configurations in their outer shell.
moderator: invention: fluorine: fluoride: compounds; Prior art date: ; Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion.
The fluorine that is found in products such as toothpaste was likely formed billions of years ago in now dead stars of the same type as our sun. Fluorine can be found in everyday products such as toothpaste and fluorine chewing gum. However, the origins of the chemical element have been somewhat of a mystery. There have been three main theories about where it was created.
The findings now presented support the theory that fluorine is formed in stars similar to the sun but heavier, towards the end of their existence. The sun and the planets in our solar system have then been formed out of material from these dead stars. By analysing the light emitted by a star, it is possible to calculate how much of different elements it contains.
Fluorine-containing diols represented by the following formula are provided: diisocyanate for use in the present invention, any diisocyanate known to date is.
The present invention relates to a kind of polyvinylidene fluoride resin, this polyvinylidene fluoride resin has fluorine-containing ether end-group structure, and has the characteristics of high flexibility, high impact and high thermal stability. The invention still further relates to the method for manufacture of said polyvinylidene fluoride resin. In all fluoro-resin, the homopolymer of vinylidene VDF is the very high fluoro-resin of a kind of hardness, but it is not good around Qu Xingneng.
In order to improve this performance, mode that generally can be through adding comonomer to be reducing its percent crystallinity, thereby improves around Qu Xingneng. Usually side chain is long more, helps the reduction of percent crystallinity more, just helps the improvement around Qu Xingneng. For example; U. But because this method has adopted hydrocarbon type the organic initiators and the chain-transfer agent of lipid, the end group of the polyvinylidene fluoride ene product that the result obtains is a hydrogeneous type of end group, causes the stability of this polymeric articles general.
Pat 6; ; B2 discloses a kind of method of manufacture of polyvinylidene fluoride resin; It comprises that the joining day of Quality Initiative transfer agent obtains the polyvinylidene fluoride resin of a part of non-chain transfer, thereby can make polyvinylidene fluoride resin have extraordinary shock strength performance not adding softening agent or impact under the condition of activator. But the molecular weight of product wider distribution of this patented process gained, adopting no organic initiators and hydrocarbon class simultaneously is that main chain-transfer agent also is faced with end group stabilization property general problem.
Pat 4,, disclose that to adopt Virahol be the thermostability that chain-transfer agent improves vinylidene copolymerization product and homopolymerization product, but compare fluorine-containing end group, and owing to the bond energy of the C-F key bond energy greater than c h bond, so its stability still is apparent not enough.